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Nutrient Intakes of Vegetarians and Vegans

The table below shows the nutrient intakes of participants in EPIC-Oxford (1) and Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) (2).

EPIC-Oxford:

AHS-2:

These nutrient intakes were based on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) which are the least accurate way of measuring nutrient intakes. FFQs involve asking someone how often they eat a long list of foods. Two better ways to measure nutrient intakes are to ask participants to keep a food diary, or to analyze duplicate portions in a laboratory. EPIC-Oxford has plans to report nutrient intakes by using food dairies among a sample of the population. The authors reported that:

Seven-day food diaries were completed by 31,000 participants and these will provide further information on energy intake. Preliminary analysis of a sample of 150 food diaries indicates that the FFQ does indeed underestimate intakes of energy, and therefore of most nutrients, among vegans (unpublished data).
Table 1. Nutrient Intakes
 EPIC1AHS-22
MenWomenMen & Women
Non-
Veg
Pesco Lacto-
Ovo
Vegan Non-
Veg
Pesco Lacto-
Ovo
Vegan Non-
Veg
Semi Pesco Lacto-
Ovo
Vegan
Number6,9511,5003,74877022,9626,93112,34713,43233,6344,0426,58321,7995,694
Calories2,1862,1192,0901,9071,9101,8451,8101,6601,7731,6091,8151,8031,791
Carb (g)256264268262231236239233267281285285309
Carb %47505155485153565356575762
Protein (g)87746862836962567571737171
Protein %16141313171514141514151214
Fat (g)78747360686462527774727365
Fat %32313128323130283533333329
Sat Fat (g)26222211221919101917151611
Sat Fat %119951099598775
Fiber (g)19222328192222263035373746
n3 (g)  -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -  2.12.02.22.01.8
Vit A - retinol (mcg)7403373067465430827777  -    -    -    -    -  
beta-carotene (mcg)  -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -  5,5255,8617,4176,3038,474
Vit B1 - thiamin (mg)22222222  -    -    -    -    -  
Vit B2 - riboflavin (mg)22222222  -    -    -    -    -  
Vit B3 - niacin (mg)2522212423201821  -    -    -    -    -  
Vit B6 (mg)2.32.12.02.22.22.01.92.13.13.43.53.33.2
Vit B12 (mcg)7.35.02.60.47.04.92.50.57.18.38.58.06.3
Folate (mcg)329358367431321346350412672731766729723
Vit C (mg)119130123155138147147169250273308271293
Vit D (mcg)3.42.91.60.93.32.81.50.96.15.55.84.62.4
Vit E (mg)11.813.013.716.110.711.411.614.020.026.126.924.718.5
Calcium (mg)1,0571,0811,0876109891,0211,0125821,0721,1951,1251,145933
Iron (mg)13.414.013.915.312.612.812.614.120.021.722.422.122.2
Magnesium (mg)36639639644034135835239144849251914591
Phosphorus (mg)  -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -  1,3591,3601,3661,3481,370
Potassium (mg)3,9653,9404,0293,9373,8393,7593,9563,8173,4873,6273,8533,6674,120
Sodium (mg)  -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -  3,2723,3463,1013,4323,066
Zinc (mg)9.88.68.47.99.27.97.77.211.911.611.511.511.3
Numbers listed are the average for EPIC-Oxford and the median for AHS-2.

References

1. Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ. EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 2003 May;6(3):259-69. | link

2.Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Fraser GE. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Dec;113(12):1610-9. | link