Evidence-Based Nutrient Recommendations

Cancer Rates of Vegetarians

By Jack Norris, RD

Contents

Introduction

This article will address the subject of cancer rates in vegetarians. Very little data exists for vegans. The tables in this article are extracted from all studies that have looked at vegetarians and show the rates of cancer mortality (how many people died from the disease) or incidence (how many people contracted the disease).

Each table below looks at a different type of cancer and whether there has been a difference in risk between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

Some things to keep in mind:

  • Because the Meta-Analysis included participants in the Health Food Shoppers, Adventist Health, Heidelberg Vegetarian, and Oxford Vegetarian studies; and the EPIC-Oxford study includes many of the same people as were in the Oxford Vegetarian study, many of these results are not from completely different populations.
  • Although the 2012 paper from Adventist Health Study-2 (Tantamango-Bartley, 2012) found some statistically significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians for some specific cancers, they included semi- and pesco-vegetarians in the “vegetarian” category and thus are not listed below. Individual cancer categories were analyzed among the diet groups and female vegans had a lower risk of “all female cancers” before adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Vegans also had a slightly higher rate of urinary tract cancers after adjusting for BMI.
  • There is no data on North American vegetarians who are not also Seventh-day Adventists.

In order for the rate to be statistically significant, the numbers in the confidence interval (in the parentheses) must both either be less than 1.00 or greater than 1.00.

EPIC-Oxford: Cancer Mortality (2016)

In a 2016 paper from EPIC-Oxford (Appleby, 2016), there was no difference in all cancer mortality between vegetarians (including vegans) and regular meat-eaters (0.93, 0.82-1.05). Vegetarians had lower rates of death from pancreatic (0.48, 0.28-0.82) and lymphatic (0.50, 0.32-0.79), but not colorectal, lung, breast, or ovary cancers.

After excluding participants who changed diet categories during the study, vegetarians had a lower risk of all cancer (0.82, 0.72-0.94), and similar findings as above for the other cancers.

Vegans suffered from 67 deaths from cancer, with a rate not significantly different from regular meat-eaters (1.14, 0.88-1.47).

General Cancer

Table 1 shows that the 2014 study from EPIC-Oxford is the first to show vegetarians to have a lower cancer rate than non-vegetarians (not including pesco-vegetarians). It took 14.9 years of follow-up before a statistically significant difference developed.

Table 1. Risk for All Cancers Combined
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2010
Non-Veg 1.00
Pesco-Veg   .88 (.80, .97)
Vegetarians   .88 (.82, .95)
smoking, alcohol, physical activity level, gender, study, recruitment method Incidence
EPIC-OxfordB 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .93 (.71, 1.04)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
EPIC-OxfordC 1993-2002
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.11 (.82, 1.51)
age, gender, smoking Mortality
Oxford VegetarianD 1980-2000
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.06 (.85, 1.34)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Health Food ShoppersD 1973-1997
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.18 (.99, 1.41)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Heidelberg VegetarianE 1978-1989
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.59 (.87, 2.94)
gender, duration of diet, BMI (smoking did not effect results) Mortality. Non-vegetarians ate meat “occasionally.”
A. Key, 2014
B. Key, 2009a
C. Key, 2003
D. Appleby, 2002
E. Chang-Claude, 1993

Table 2 shows that the most recent reports from both AHS-2 and EPIC-Oxford found a lower cancer rate in vegans compared to non-vegetarians.

Table 2. Risk For All Cancers Combined
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2010
Non-Veg 1.00
Pesco   .88 (.80, .97)
Lacto-ovo   .89 (.83, .96)
Vegan   .81 (.66, .98)
smoking, alcohol, physical activity level, gender, study, recruitment method Incidence
Adventist Health Study-2B 2002-2006
Non-Veg 1.00
Semi   .98 (.82, 1.17)
Pesco   .88 (.77, 1.01)
Lacto-ovo   .93 (.85, 1.02)
Vegan   .84 (.72, .99)
age, race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, alcohol, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause status. Adjusting for physical activity did not change the results. Incidence
Adventist Health Study-2B 2002-2006
Non-Veg 1.00
Semi   .98 (.83, 1.18)
Pesco   .89 (.77, 1.03)
Lacto-ovo   .95 (.86, 1.04)
Vegan   .86 (.73, 1.00)
Same as above, plus BMI Incidence
EPIC-Oxford C 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .88 (.81, .96)
Pescob   .82 (.73, .93)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
EPIC-OxfordD 1993-2005
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .89 (.80, 1.00)
Pescob   .83 (.71,   .96)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key, 2014
B. Tantamango-Bartley, 2012
C. Key 2009b
D. Key, 2009a

Specific Cancers

The tables below do not include the results of the 2014 EPIC-Oxford (Key, 2014) or 2015 EPIC-Oxford (Appleby, 2016) reports. These reports are starting to contain so many different analyses that maintaining these tables is becoming unwieldy; we are assessing whether to change the format to something much simpler.

Colorectal Cancer

Table 3 shows one study that found a higher risk of colorectal cancer for vegetarians and one study that found a lower risk.

Table 3. Risk For Colorectal Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
Netherlands Cohort StudyA 1986-2006
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .78 (.51, 1.20)
age, gender Incidence
Netherlands Cohort StudyA 1986-2006
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .89 (.58, 1.39)
age, gender, energy, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, education Incidence
EPIC-OxfordB 1993-2010
Non-Veg 1.00
Pesco-Veg   .66 (.48, .92)
Vegetarians   1.03 (.84, 1.26)
smoking, alcohol, physical activity level, gender, study, recruitment method Incidence
EPIC-OxfordC 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.49 (1.09, 2.03)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
Oxford VegetarianD 1980-2000
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.42 (  .76, 2.67)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Oxford VegetarianE 1980-1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .85 (  .55, 1.32)
age, sex, alcohol, smoking Incidence
Meta-AnalysisF 1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .99 (  .77, 1.27)
age, gender, smoking, and study Mortality
Health Food ShoppersD 1973-1997
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .85 (  .52, 1.39)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Adventist HealthG 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .53 (  .35, .81)
age, gender Incidence
A. Gilsing, 2015
B. Key, 2014
C. Key, 2009a
D. Appleby, 2002
E. Sanjoaquin, 2004
F. Key, 1999
G. Fraser, 1999

Table 4 divides populations into more specific diet groups:

Table 4. Risk For Colorectal Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
AHS-2A 2002-2014
Non-Veg 1.00
Semi-Veg  .92 (.62, 1.37)
Pesco  .57 (.40, .82)
Lacto-ovo  .82 (.65, 1.02)
Vegan  .84 (.59-1.19)
age, race, gender, education, exercise, smoking, alcohol, family history, peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, aspirin, statins, prior colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy, supplemental calcium, supplemental vitamin D, calories, hormone therapy Incidence
EPIC-OxfordB 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians 1.12 (.87, 1.44)
Pescob   .77 (.53, 1.13)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
EPIC-OxfordC 1993-2005
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians 1.39 (1.01, 1.91)
Pescob   .64 (   .37, 1.10)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Orlich, 2015
B. Key 2009b
C. Key, 2009a

Prostate Cancer

The results for prostate cancer, Table 5 below, are similar to colorectal; only the Adventist Health Study showed a statistically significant difference.

Table 5. Risk For Prostate Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .90 (.61, 1.33)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
Oxford VegetarianB 1980-2000
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .66 (.27, 1.59)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Meta-AnalysisC 1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .91 (.60, 1.39)
age, gender, smoking, and study Mortality
Health Food ShoppersB 1973-1997
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.29 (.62, 2.68)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Adventist HealthD 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .65 (.44,  .95)
age, gender Incidence. 6 years of follow up.
A. Key, 2009a
B. Appleby, 2002
C. Key, 1999
D. Fraser, 1999

In AHS-2, vegans had a lower risk than regular meat-eaters, even after adjusting for BMI. In EPIC-Oxford, fish-eaters had a statistically significant, lower rate of prostate cancer than regular meat eaters. See Table 6 below.

Table 6. Risk For Prostate Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
AHS-2A 2002-2013
Non-Vega 1.00
Semi-Vegc 1.18 (.91, 1.54)
Pescob 1.07 (.88, 1.31)
Lacto-Ovo   .96 (.83, 1.12)
Vegan   .66 (.50,   .87)
Age, race, family history, education, screening, caloric intake, BMI Incidence
EPIC-OxfordB 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .87 (.64, 1.18)
Pescob   .57 (.33,   .99)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
cAte red meat or poultry ≤1 time/month but all meats combined (including fish) <1 time/wk.
A. Tantamango-Bartley, 2015
B. Key 2009b

Breast Cancer

Unfortunately, the one (barely) significant finding was that vegetarians had more breast cancer in the Health Food Shoppers study. See Table 7 below. That study did not adjust for having children which is protective against breast cancer, and vegetarian women tend to have fewer children.

Table 7. Risk For Breast Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
AHS-2A 2002-2011
Non-Veg 1.00
Semi   .91 (.67, 1.23)
Pesco   .91 (.71, 1.17)
Lacto-ovo   1.05 (.89, 1.23)
Vegan   .78 (.58, 1.05)
All Veg   .97 (.84, 1.11)
race, height, physical activity, family history of cancer, mammography, age at menopause, age at menarche, birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, age at first child, number of children, breastfeeding, educational level, smoking, alcohol Incidence
EPIC-OxfordB 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .94 (.77, 1.13)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
Oxford VegetarianC 1980-2000
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.23 (.66, 2.31)
age, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Meta-AnalysisD 1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .95 (.55, 1.63)
age, smoking, and study Mortality
South Asian-Born Women Living in UKE 1995-1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .77 (.50, 1.19)
age, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Incidence. Case control.
Health Food ShoppersC 1973-1997
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.62 (1.01, 2.60)
age, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
IndiaF 1980-1984
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.25 (.48, 1.67)
age, region Incidence. Case control.
Adventist HealthG 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .80 (.56, 1.15)
age Incidence. 6 years of follow up.
A. Penniecook-Sawyers, 2016
B. Key, 2009a
C. Appleby, 2002
D. Key, 1999
E. Dos Santos Silva, 2002
F. Rao, 1994a
G. Fraser, 1999
Table 8. Rates for Breast Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .91 (.77, 1.08)
Pescob 1.05 (.86, 1.28)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Lung Cancer

Table 9. Rates for Lung Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.23 (.69, 2.17)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
Oxford VegetarianB 1980-2000
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.27 (.60, 2.68)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Meta-AnalysisC 1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .84 (.59, 1.18)
age, gender, smoking, and study Mortality
Health Food ShoppersB 1973-1997
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.19 (.70, 2.02)
age, gender, smoking; excluded first 5 years of follow-up Mortality
Adventist HealthD 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .86 (.42, 1.79)
age, gender Incidence. 6 years of follow up.
A. Key, 2009a
B. Appleby, 2002
C. Key, 1999
D. Fraser, 1999
Table 10. Rates for Lung Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians 1.11 (.75, 1.65)
Pescob   .59 (.29, 1.23)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Ovarian Cancer

Table 11. Rates for Ovarian Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2005
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .85 (.49, 1.46)
age, gender, smoking Incidence
A. Key, 2009a
Table 12. Rates for Ovarian Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .69 (.45, 1.07)
Pescob   .37 (.18,   .77)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Uterine Cancer

Table 13. Rates for Uterine Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
Adventist HealthA 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .85 (.58, 1.23)
age, gender Incidence. 6 years of follow up.
A. Fraser, 1999

Stomach Cancer

Table 14. Risk for Stomach Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
Meta-AnalysisA 1999
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians 1.02 (.64, 1.62)
age, gender, smoking, and study Mortality
A. Key, 1999
Table 15. Risk for Stomach Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .36 (.16,   .78)
Pescob   .29 (.07, 1.20)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Pancreatic Cancer

Table 16 shows that vegetarians had about half the rate of pancreatic cancer compared to people who ate meat more than once
daily. In comparison to all meat eaters, the rates were not significantly different.

Table 16. Risk for Pancreatic Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
Adventist HealthA 1976-1982
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .46 (  .06, 1.39)
Vegetarians 1.00
Non-Vega 2.18 (1.04, 4.58)
age, sex, smoking, other foods

age, gender

Mortality
aAte meat more than once daily.
A. Mills, 1988
Table 17. Risk for Pancreatic Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .94 (.52, 1.71)
Pescob   .82 (.34, 1.96)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish
bAte no meat other than fish
A. Key 2009b

Brain Cancer

Among people who ate meat more than once daily, there were no cases of meningioma cancer and this finding was statistically significant (see Table 18 below.)

Table 18. Risk for Brain Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
Adventist HealthA 1976-1982
Glioma Cancer
Vegetarians 1.00
Non-Vega 1.56 (.52, 5.63)
Non-Vegb 1.75 (.34, 8.54)
Meningioma Cancer
Vegetarians 1.00
Non-Vega   .36 (.09, 1.46)
Non-Vegb 0 (P < .05)
age, gender Incidence. 6 years of follow up.
aAte meat less than once daily.
bAte meat more than once daily.
A. Mills, 1989
Table 19. Risk for Brain Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians 1.25 (.72, 2.16)
Pescob 1.39 (.69, 2.80)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Oral Cancer

Vegetarians, as shown in Table 20 below, had significantly lower rates of oral cancer in this study of Indian vegetarians.

Table 20. Risk for Oral Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
IndiaA 1980-1984
Non-Veg 1.00
Vegetarians   .55 (.40, .74)
age, region Incidence. Case control.
A. Rao, 1994b

Cancer of the Upper Digestive Tract

Table 21. Risk for Cancer of the Upper Digestive Tract
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .81 (.45, 1.46)
Pescob   .44 (.16, 1.25)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Cervical Cancer

Table 22. Risk for Cervical Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians 2.08 (1.05, 4.12)
Pescob 2.05 (  .91, 4.63)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Melanoma

Table 23. Risk for Melanoma
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .89 (.61, 1.29)
Pescob   .90 (.55, 1.47)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Endometrial Cancer

Table 24. Risk for Endometrial Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .75 (.45, 1.28)
Pescob   .61 (.29, 1.30)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Kidney Cancer

Table 25. Risk for Kidney Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .76 (.36, 1.58)
Pescob   .36 (.09, 1.52)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Bladder Cancer

Table 26. Risk for Bladder Cancer
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .47 (.25,   .89)
Pescob   .81 (.36, 1.81)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

Lymphatic & Hematopoietic Tissue Cancer

Table 27. Risk for Lymphatic & Hematopoietic Tissue Cancer.
Study Years Risk and Confidence Interval Adjustments Notes
EPIC-OxfordA 1993-2006
All
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .55 (.39,  .78)
Pescob   .85 (.56, 1.29)
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .57 (.35,   .95)
Pescob   .86 (.47, 1.58)
Multiple Myeloma
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .25 (.08,  .73)
Pescob   .72 (.25, 2.10)
Leukemia
Non-Vega 1.00
Vegetarians   .78 (.43, 1.43)
Pescob 1.18 (.58, 2.40)
age, gender, smoking, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptives, method of recruitment Incidence
aExcluding those who ate no meat other than fish.
bAte no meat other than fish.
A. Key 2009b

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Last updated September 2015

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Mills, 1989. Mills PK, Preston-Martin S, Annegers JF, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Risk factors for tumors of the brain and cranial meninges in Seventh-Day Adventists. Neuroepidemiology. 1989;8(5):266-75.

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Orlich, 2015. Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fan J, Sveen L, Bennett H, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Butler TL, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Mar 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Penniecook-Sawyers, 2016. Penniecook-Sawyers JA, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Beeson L, Knutsen S, Herring P, Fraser GE. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population. Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 18:1-8.

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Tantamango-Bartley, 2012. Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Nov 20.

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Basically same results as reference 13 Key at al. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(suppl):1S-7S.
Not cited.

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