The recommendations below address the nutrients which are of more concern in vegan than omnivore diets, but they aren’t everything anyone needs to know about eating for optimal health.
- The Vegan for Life Food Guide
- Books on vegan nutrition
- What Supplements Does a Vegan Dietitian Take?
- Laboratory Tests for Vegans
Where recommended below, vitamin and mineral supplements are effective at preventing nutrient deficiencies.
To ensure adequate protein status, vegans should eat 3–4 servings of the following foods which are both high in protein and the amino acid lysine:
- Legumes—1/2 cup cooked
- Beans—garbanzos, kidney, pinto, navy
- Peas—split or green
- Soyfoods—edamame, tofu, tempeh, soy milk (1 cup), soy meats (3 oz)
- Peanuts—1/4 cup
- Seitan—3 oz (85 g)
- Quinoa—1 cup cooked
- Pistachios—1/4 cup
- Pumpkin seeds—1/4 cup roasted
It’s hard to design a vegan diet that meets lysine requirements for a person who does not exercise daily without including legumes, seitan, quinoa, pistachios, or pumpkin seeds without having too many calories. It’s easier to do for regular exercisers whose calorie requirements are higher, as the low lysine foods will add up to provide enough.
Athletes will require somewhat more servings of protein than listed above, but this will be based on their individual sport and training. See Sports Nutrition for more information.
There’s evidence that as people age, they require a higher percentage of their calories to be protein; thus people over 60 should focus on making the above high-protein foods a large part of their meals.
Vegans who don’t eat enough calories to maintain their weight should make an effort to include a higher percentage of high-protein foods.
See more information on protein and vegan diets in Protein Part 1: Basics.
In November 2020 we updated our recommendations with a lower threshold to meet the U.S. RDA and an upper suggestion to meet the European Food Safety Authority’s adequate intake. For more info, see our Rationale for Recommendations.
Notes on vitamin B12
- A larger version of this table can be found in the Google spreadsheet B12 Doses and Absorption.
- These recommendations are for the cyanocobalamin form of B12 only which is the form in fortified foods and most supplements. For other forms, see Coenzyme Forms: Methylcobalamin and Adenosylcobalamin.
- If you haven’t had a regular source of B12 for more than a few months, take 2,000 µg once a day for 2 weeks to replenish your stores. While there’s no definite cutoff for when B12 starts to become unsafe, because people often ask, we’ll somewhat arbitrarily say not to take more than 1,000 µg per day over the long-term without guidance from a physician. Large doses of B12 can trigger acne-like symptoms in a small percentage of people.
- We recommend chewing B12-only supplements and swallowing multivitamins whole, to increase their absorption.
- Anyone with kidney disease or suspected B12 deficiency or malabsorption should talk to their doctor about an appropriate B12 regimen.
- µg = mcg = microgram = 1/1,000 of a milligram (mg)
- For food labels in the United States, in March of 2020, the Daily Value for B12 was lowered from the 1968 RDA of 6 µg to the current RDA of 2.4 µg.
- Store B12 supplements and fortified foods in a dark, cool place, preferably a refrigerator. Exposure to light can damage B12.
- B12-fortified toothpaste is available in some locations and has been shown to be a reliable source of B12 for vegans.
More information on vitamin B12.
The following will go a long way in helping you meet your calcium needs. Aim to consume at least 2 cups total of the following foods daily (it can be 2 cups mixed or of the same food):
- Chopped and boiled, low-oxalate, high-calcium dark leafy green vegetables: turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, bok choy, and collard greens. One serving normally contains about 75–100 mg of calcium.
- Calcium-fortified beverage such as nondairy milks or orange juice.
- Tofu made with calcium salts (as listed in the ingredients).
Below are the calcium intake recommendations for the United Kingdom and the United States. We recommend aiming to meet the U.K. recommendations. It’s safe to take a calcium supplement to make up the difference between your usual dietary intake and the recommendations.
More information on Calcium.
You can obtain vegan sources of vitamin D from fortified foods and supplements, specially treated mushrooms, and sunshine on your skin.
- Supplements – Due to skin cancer, some dermatologists recommend getting all vitamin D from supplements, 600 to 1,000 IU per day, rather than the sun.
- People ≥1 year and older who don’t receive adequate sun exposure
- All people ≥65
- Sunshine – people
- Arms and face (or the equivalent amount of skin), midday (10 am–2 pm), without sunscreen, when sunburn is possible (not winter or cloudy)
- Dark-skinned people need 20 min/day
- Light-skinned people need 10–15 min/day
Such large amounts of vitamin D are only available in supplementals or specially treated mushrooms.
Below are the U.S. recommended vitamin D intakes.
|Age||US DRI (IU)||Upper Limit (IU)|
|Pregnancy and Breastfeeding|
See more information on vitamin D and vegan diets in Vitamin D.
Iodine is found inconsistently in plant foods depending on the iodine content of the soil. The food supply in many countries has traditionally been depleted of iodine; iodized salt fortification programs have solved iodine deficiency in many of them.
In the United States, table salt that is labeled as “iodized” is fortified with 100 µg of iodine per one-third teaspoon (which provides 774 mg of sodium). Salt in commercial and processed foods is usually not iodized. Sea salt doesn’t contain appreciable amounts of iodine unless fortified.
Aim to meet the DRI in the table below. Vegans who don’t meet their iodine needs by way of table salt should opt for a multivitamin or supplement containing potassium iodide.
The American Thyroid Association recommends supplementing with 150 µg per day of iodine during pregnancy and nursing (citaiton).
- Many potassium iodide supplements are intended to block radiation and are measured in milligrams (mg) rather than micrograms (abbreviated as µg or mcg) and can contain many times the upper limit of 1,100 µg.
- We recommend not relying on kelp supplements for iodine, but if someone has been taking a multivitamin with kelp, the risks are probably not high enough to discard them; when possible, opt for potassium iodide instead of kelp.
- If a tablet contains significantly more iodine than what’s recommended, they can normally be broken into halves or quarters.
|Iodine Dietary Reference Intakes|
|A. The Institute of Medicine says it’s not possible to establish an upper limit for 0–12 months old but that intake should be from food and formula only.|
Vitamin A in plant foods comes mostly in the form of β-carotene. The RDA for vitamin A is 700 RAE for women and 900 RAE for men (see Vitamin A for other age groups), and it’s very important for vegans to meet the RDA. Eating the foods in the table below with a source of fat will aid in the absorption of vitamin A.
|Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)|
|Carrot juice||1 C||2,256|
|Pumpkin||1/2 C canned||953|
|Carrot||1/2 C boiled slices||665|
|Sweet potato||1/2 medium, boiled||595|
|Butternut squash||1/2 C baked, cubes||572|
|Spinach||1/2 C cooked||472|
|Sweet potato fries||1/2 C||274|
|Romaine lettuce||1 C||205|
|Broccoli||1 C boiled||120|
|Apricot||1/2 C dried||117|
|Mango||1 C pieces||89|
|Kale||1/2 C cooked||86|
|Tomatoes||1 C chopped or sliced||76|
|Canned tomatoes||1 C||48|
|Sun-dried tomatoes||1/2 C||12|
|Tomato paste||1 T||12|
More information: Vitamin A
Our omega-3 recommendations have two parts.
Part One: Meet the DRI
All vegans should meet the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for the essential omega-3 fat, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA):
|ALA Dietary Reference Intakes|
|AAI for infants less than 1 year old is for total omega-3s (ALA + EPA + DHA). The Institute of Medicine doesn’t give specific recommendations for any individual omega-3.|
The above recommendations can be met by choosing enough foods from the table below.
|ALA Amounts in Plant Foods|
|Chia seeds||1 tsp||713|
|Flaxseed oil||1/4 tsp||608|
|Flaxseeds – ground||1 tsp||570|
|AEnglish (light brown) walnuts||3 halves (1/5 oz)||515|
|Soybeans – cooked||1/2 cup||500|
|Soy oil||1-1/2 tsp||450|
|Canola oil||1 tsp||433|
|Tofu – firm||1 cup||400|
|AAlways grind nuts and mix with food for 1-4 year olds to avoid choking.|
Omega-3 Recommendations for Pregnancy, Nursing, and Infants
- Maternal diet during pregnancy
- Meet the DRIs for ALA of 1.4 g per day (see above for sources).
- Supplement with 300-600 mg of DHA per day.
- Maternal diet during nursing
- Meet the DRIs for ALA of 1.3 g per day (see above for sources).
- Evidence isn’t convincing for DHA supplementation, but some organizations recommend at least 200 mg per day.
- Formula-fed infants
- Use a formula with 500 mg of total omega-3s (ALA, EPA, and DHA) per day; EPA and DHA are not specifically required if there’s 500 mg of ALA.
- Children eating only solid food
- Meet the DRIs for ALA (see Daily Needs for amounts and sources).
Part Two: For Extra Caution
There isn’t enough evidence to determine whether vegans should supplement their diets with omega-3s beyond the DRIs. At this time, it’s prudent to take one of these additional steps:
- Consume an additional 2,000 mg of ALA per day using the foods in the table above, or
- Take a supplement of 200-300 mg of DHA per day.
Your DHA supplement can contain EPA, but it’s not necessary if you’re meeting the DRI for ALA. We don’t recommend or have opinions on any specific brands of DHA supplements.
Too much omega-3 can result in bleeding and bruising. If you bleed or bruise easily, consult a health professional before significantly increasing your omega-3 intake.
Iron is plentiful in many plant foods, but it’s less absorbable than iron in meat. Vegetarian athletes and people who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or menstruating should pay attention to their iron needs. Plant iron absorption is significantly increased by:
- Adding vitamin C at meals (see chart of foods)
- Avoiding tea and possibly coffee, red wine, and cocoa within an hour of meals
- Avoiding calcium supplements at meals
If you have low iron stores, you should follow the bulleted points above. If you have normal iron stores, or no reason to think that you have low iron stores, then it’s not necessary to carefully follow the bulleted points.
See more information on iron and vegan diets in Iron.
Good plant sources of zinc are legumes, nuts, seeds, oatmeal, bread, tempeh, and miso. Without supplementation, vegan diets provide roughly the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for zinc (see the table below).
Zinc is important for immunity. If a vegan finds they’re easily catching colds, taking a modest zinc supplement of about the DRI might solve the problem.
|≥ 19 male||11||40|
|> 19 female||8||40|
For more information on zinc and vegan diets, see Zinc.
Soils in some countries lack selenium and vegans in those countries should ensure a source of selenium; Brazil nuts or a multivitamin with selenium are the most common. Soil in the United States and Finland has enough selenium that vegans there don’t need to be concerned. Vegans in the United Kingdom and Denmark should take steps to ensure a source. In Germany, the data on vegans is mixed and so it’s best to ensure a source.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 µg/day for adolescents and adults, 60 micrograms per day during pregnancy, and 70 µg/day when breastfeeding. The upper intake level (UL) for selenium is 400 µg/day for adolescents and adults.
For more information on selenium and vegan diets, see Selenium.